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Thread: Toyota Mark II (4th gen) X60 1980-1984

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    Toyota Mark II (4th gen) X60 1980-1984

    The Toyota Mark II (Japanese: トヨタ・マークII, Toyota Māku II) is a compact, later mid-size sedan manufactured and marketed in Japan by Toyota between 1968 and 2004. Prior to 1984, the model was marketed as the Toyota Corona Mark II. In some export markets, Toyota marketed the vehicle as the Toyota Cressida between 1976 and 1992 across four generations. Toyota replaced the rear-wheel-drive Cressida in North America with the front-wheel-drive Avalon. Every Mark II and Cressida was manufactured at the Motomachi plant at Toyota, Aichi, Japan from September 1968 to October 1993, and later at the Miyata plant at Miyawaka, Fukuoka from December 1992 to October 2000, with some models also assembled in Jakarta, Indonesia as the Cressida.

    Fourth generation: Toyota Corona Mark II (X60; 1980–1984)
    The fourth-generation Corona Mark II was introduced in 1980. It was still badged as the Corona Mark II but many of the advertisement at the time simply refer to it as the Mark II. The two-door coupé was no longer offered in this generation, replaced by the Soarer, and the fourth generation was only available with four doors, either as a sedan, hardtop, or as a station wagon (mainly marketed as a commercial vehicle in Japan). Power by either the 1G-EU, Turbocharged M-TEU, 5M-EU, and a fuel-injected version of the twin-cam 18R-G was available in the GT. 2.2 and 2.4-liter diesel engines of the L family were also available, with turbocharging available for the larger engine. In 1982 the twin-cam 1G-GEU engine was added. In 1983 the automatic transmission was changed to an electronic controlled four-speed. The top-of-the-line "Grande" version continued to be available, only in combination with the more powerful engine options.

    The Van generally received less powerful engines and has very sparse equipment, and was shorter than its passenger car equivalent due to the use of more compact bumpers. This Mark II generation included commercial, taxi, and drivers training vehicles. The Mark II was common alongside the slightly smaller Corona as a taxi.

    The X60 Mark II introduced the world's first voice warning system developed and offered as standard. In Indonesia, it was sold as the Corona Mark II with the 99 PS (73 kW) DIN (105 PS JIS) 21R engine (RX60) beginning in late 1981.

    The second-generation Cressida, the MX63 (sedans for model years 1983 and 1984 with new IRS, the Wagon and solid rear axle model is the MX62), was a significant redesign from the previous generation. Gone was the coupé version, but a more up-to-date body style was new for the sedan and wagon. Changes from the previous generation included a larger engine using electronic fuel injection, now up to 116 hp (87 kW) at 4800 rpm in North American trim.[ The 5M-E would power the 1981 and 1982 models before it was superseded by the 5M-GE, a DOHC engine with a substantially higher power rating, 143 hp (107 kW) in 1983 and 1984. North American X60-series Cressidas all received versions of the 2.8-litre inline-six engine, while in other markets smaller units were often available.

    Much like the contemporary Camry and Corolla, the US market Cressida had a unique interior that differed from other LHD variants, including those sold in nearby Canada, in order to satisfy American design tastes and certain federal requirements. While other LHD Cressidas had essentially a mirror image of the RHD interior sold in markets like Japan and Australia , the US spec interior had a unique steering wheel, completely different bottom half of the dashboard with more luxurious soft touch materials, and the major addition of the automatic shoulder belts, which were not offered in any other market. The center console is also different and includes two levers for both driver and passenger with "LIFT FOR EMERGENCY EXIT" decals that are designed to release the tension in the automatic shoulder belts when they lock up as designed in a collision or panic stop situation.

    In 1983, the Cressida was refreshed and gained an independent semi-trailing link rear suspension, rear vented disc brakes, and the 5M-GE engine. Much of this technology came from the Toyota Supra parts bin with minor differences. A five-speed manual transmission was available, but cars equipped with it were considerably more rare than automatic versions. The electronically controlled A43DE automatic transmission was another improvement over the previous hydraulically controlled A43DL transmission and had three modes: Power, Normal, and Economy. This iteration was praised for its handling, ride, quiet interior, and most of all, its reliability; the Cressida was quickly gaining a reputation for outstanding ownership.

    In August 1983, Toyota chairman Eiji Toyoda initiated the F1 project ("Flagship" and "No. 1 vehicle"; alternatively called the "Circle-F" project), a clandestine effort aimed at producing a world-class luxury sedan for international markets. This led to the creation of an all new, full size luxury sedan designed for export markets and ended up called the Lexus LS.
    The US-market 1981 Cressida was the first car to come with motorized automatic shoulder harnesses which wrapped around front seat occupants when the door was closed and the ignition switched on. All US-market Cressidas from 1981 on were so equipped.

    Australia and New Zealand
    This model was again assembled in New Zealand initially only with a two-litre, four-cylinder petrol engine and five-speed manual or optional three-speed automatic transmission. Various markets received different bodywork, combining various elements of the Mark II, Chaser, and Cresta variants.

    After the mid-generation facelift, a mid-grade specification similar to the original one-model line was offered on New Zealand assembled models with the four-cylinder engine; a new top version had a two-litre six-cylinder engine, four-speed automatic and air conditioning, becoming the first NZ-built Toyota to have 'air' as standard. A large number of the four-cylinder cars with dealer-fitted air conditioning were sold to car hire company Hertz Rent A Car. Both engines were below two litres to avoid the higher sales taxes that applied on larger engines in New Zealand at the time.

    This model was sold as a Cressida in Europe as well, albeit only in a few markets and never in significant numbers. Toyota was withdrawing from the large car categories in Europe at this time, focusing on the smaller vehicles. The Crown had been discontinued in many European markets, leaving the Cressida as the biggest Toyota available. European market Cressidas were generally fitted with two-liter inline-fours or -sixes, and the 2.2-liter diesel was a popular option in some places. The Swedish-specification model had its own emissions controls due to that country's peculiar legislations; its 1972-cc 21R-U engine produces 105 PS (77 kW) at 5200 rpm.

    Production swapped to the X51 and X61 Chaser in 1980, with the addition of the 6-cylinder 2.0 L 1G-EU (single cam) and 1G-GE (twincam) engines. Body styles offered were a four-door sedan and 4-door hardtop, no longer offering the 2-door hardtop with this generation. The "Avante" trim level had a sport tuned suspension using Michelin tires. This generation saw a new competitor from Nissan called the Nissan Leopard with a lower asking price in comparison to the Japanese market favorite, the Skyline.

    Source: Wikipedia

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