Ferrari's weapon for the the 1957 Formula 1 season was again based on Vittorio Jano's Lancia D50. Both its chassis and engine were modified which earned it a new name, 801. Ferrari's 1956 championship driver, Juan Manuel Fangio, had moved back to Maserati. His old team-mate Stirling Moss moved to Vanwall. These two drivers were in a league of their own, with Fangio winning the first three races and his fifth world championship. Three second-place finishes were the best the Scuderia could manage.
After the successful 1956 season, the 1957 season was a very bad one. The 801 was outpaced and two of the drivers died early in the season. Alfonso de Portago had a horrific accident in the Mille Miglia, killing the driver, the co-driver and eleven people crowd. It was a blow for the organisers as well and the Mille Miglia was never run again.
At the factory work on a new engine and chassis was started for the 1958 season. Based on the dominating 156 F2 car with an enlarged V6 engine, it brought Ferrari back on top.