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Sky Red Line
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  Saturn Sky Red Line

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Country of origin:United States
Introduced in:2006
Introduced at:2006 New York Auto Show
Source:Company press release
Last updated:April 12, 2006
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Click here to download printer friendly versionGeneral Motors introduced its new and most powerful Ecotec 2.0-liter direct injection Turbo engine in the 2007 Saturn Sky Red Line at the New York International Auto Show. It produces 260 horsepower (194 kw) and 260 lb.-ft. of torque (353 Nm), making it GM's highest specific output engine ever, at 2.1 horsepower per cubic inch of displacement (130 hp / 97 kw per liter).

The Saturn Sky Red Line and the Pontiac Solstice GXP are GM's first spark ignition direct injection offerings for North America. Gasoline direct injection technology helps the Ecotec engine produce more power while maintaining the lower fuel consumption of a small displacement port-injected engine. Variable valve timing and an intercooled, twin-scroll Turbocharging system are used to optimize the Ecotec 2.0-liter Turbo engine's performance.

The Ecotec 2.0-liter Turbo was developed with the global resources of GM Powertrain in the United States and Europe, drawing on expertise from the Naturally Aspirated Ecotec 2.2-liter direct injection engine used in some European applications and the 2.0-liter Turbocharged engines already in production. With direct injection, fuel is delivered directly to the combustion chamber to create a more complete burn of the air/fuel mixture. Less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower, especially at normal cruising speeds, of a conventional port-injection combustion system.

A dual-scroll Turbocharger with a lightweight turbine provides nearly instant power, and an air-to-air intercooling system bolsters the Turbo's performance by reducing inlet temperatures. Dual cam phasing complements the Turbocharging system by optimizing valve timing at lower rpm for best Turbo response and quick engine torque build-up time.

The Ecotec 2.0-liter Turbo uses a stronger, "Gen II" Ecotec engine block, which was developed with input from racing experience to support increased horsepower and torque. The cylinder block bulkheads - the areas where the main bearing caps are attached - and the bore walls are enlarged for strength. Other areas of the engine were enhanced to reinforce the structure, and the water jacket is deeper for added cooling capacity and improved cylinder bore roundness. This architecture is shared with the 2.4-liter Ecotec engine that debuted in the Pontiac Solstice roadster.

Components including the steel crankshaft, forged connecting rods and cast aluminium pistons are high-strength items that enhance durability. Jet-spray oil cooling directed toward an oil-galley piston help reduce piston temperatures. The system delivers pressurized oil to continuously lubricate and cool the pistons, which reduces friction and noise and ensures durability for the engine's higher power levels. To enhance combustion, the piston tops feature a dish shape that deflects injected fuel toward the spark plugs.

To accommodate the direct injection system, the Ecotec 2.0-liter Turbo has a unique cylinder head and intake manifold. The cylinder head incorporates mounting locations for the fuel injectors - which are typically mounted in the intake ports or intake manifold on port injection engines. A high-pressure fuel pump delivers fuel to a variable-pressure fuel rail. Fuel enters the combustion chamber through precision multi-hole fuel injectors. The fuel pump, fuel rail pressure, Fuel Injection timing and injection duration are controlled by the engine control module. In this way, fuel is metered and delivered in a finely atomized spray.

Apart from the mounting positions of the fuel injectors, the cylinder head has conventional port and combustion chamber designs, although both are optimized for direct injection and high boost pressures. The sodium-filled exhaust valves and stainless steel exhaust manifold are durable components designed to stand up to the high-performance capability of the engine.

The unique cylinder head, fuel system, pistons, intake manifold and the dual-scroll Turbocharger are the only major components that differentiate the 2.0-liter Turbo from other members of the Ecotec engine family. Mobil 1 synthetic engine oil is installed at the factory. Synthetic oil was selected for its friction-reducing capabilities and high-temperature performance.

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  Article Image gallery (12) Specifications